5 Bước xác định chân dung khách hàng (Customer Persona)

Have you ever found yourself tirelessly running ads for your products or services without even knowing who your customers are? Do you know who is willing to spend money on your products? Identifying your customer persona is crucial in setting goals, developing effective business strategies, maximizing marketing profits, and creating appropriate content.

Understanding the Concept of Customer Persona

Simply put, a customer persona is a detailed marketing profile of an individual, multiple people, or a specific organization. This profile includes basic demographic information, behavioral characteristics, preferences, and the influencing factors that determine the purchasing decisions of your target audience.

Customer personas are built based on market research, real data, surveys, and well-founded assumptions about potential and existing customers.

Customer Persona

Building customer personas is of great significance for various departments of a business, such as sales, marketing, customer service, and product development.

Since a business serves different target audiences, it is essential to create multiple customer personas.

The Importance of Creating Customer Personas

Customer personas are crucial for any business as they serve as a foundation for implementing vital marketing and business strategies.

By creating customer personas, you gain an in-depth understanding of your customers’ needs, enabling you to develop compelling content that attracts them and propose solutions that satisfy their desires (product/service design).

Without customer personas, it would be challenging to deliver products/services to the right target audience or create appropriate messages.

Customer Persona

Customer personas play a vital role and are applicable to every aspect of marketing, including:

  • Marketing Strategy: Customer personas form the foundation of marketing strategies by helping everyone in the business understand which target audience to approach. When you have a clear understanding of the market, executing marketing strategies becomes more efficient, cost-effective, and yields high return on investment (ROI).

  • Marketing Decisions: Understanding your customers’ thoughts when it comes to spending money on your products/services allows you to make marketing decisions, craft appropriate messages, and forecast potential revenue.

  • Content Marketing: You can create engaging articles, videos, or other content to attract potential and existing customers.

  • Paid Traffic: Customer personas assist in determining where to buy traffic and the appropriate channels to use.

  • Product Development: Understanding what your customers want and need helps you create products that resonate with them. It also helps you set goals and discover new opportunities for product/service development.

  • Copywriting: Effective copywriting reflects customers’ desires, addresses their concerns, and compels them to make a purchase.

  • Email Marketing: Customer personas aid in improving email conversion rates, increasing email open rates, and more.

  • Conversion Optimization: With a clear understanding of your buyers’ characteristics, it becomes easier to find and present them with conversion options.

In conclusion, identifying customer personas allows you to focus on potential customers, cater to the needs of your target audience, and create suitable products. This, in turn, improves the effectiveness of your marketing, sales, and customer service teams. It leads to increased conversion rates, order values, customer satisfaction, and loyalty.

The 5 Essential Components of Customer Personas

A customer persona model consists of five essential components:

  1. Goals and Values: These are issues related to your products/services. Such information helps in creating products, marketing campaigns, and other marketing efforts.

  2. Information Sources: Identifying where your target customers gather information, both online and offline, helps determine the best advertising platforms to reach your customer avatar.

  3. Demographics: These are descriptions of your customers’ characteristics such as age, gender, occupation, marital status, and income. This information is useful for creating content, email marketing, and choosing targeting options on advertising platforms.

  4. Challenges and Pains: Understanding your customers’ pain points enables you to develop ideas for products that address those problems. Crafting content and advertisements that speak to their pain points will attract them to take action.

  5. Obstacles and Roles: These are the reasons why your target customers may not choose to buy your products. By addressing and solving these obstacles, you can influence the decision-making process or identify key decision-makers.

The 5-Step Process of Identifying Customer Personas

The process of identifying customer personas comprises the following steps:

Step 1: Determine the Goals for Building Potential Customer Personas

Setting goals for building potential customer personas helps you:

  • Understand the purpose of serving this particular group of customers in your sales process.
  • Establish the basic needs and desires of potential customers.
  • Collect appropriate data.

Identifying Customer Persona

Step 2: Gather Data on Potential Customers

You can collect data on potential customers through various channels, such as:

Internal Sources

Your employees in different departments, including marketing (especially social media teams), sales, and customer service, may have had interactions with customers. They possess valuable insights about customer preferences at different stages of the sales process. Somewhere within their thoughts, an ideal customer persona may exist, waiting to be realized.

However, information collected from this source may be limited, as it is based on existing knowledge about customers, which may not provide new insights.

Analysis Tools and Surveys

For a deeper understanding of customers through specific data analysis, consider survey tools and online customer analysis platforms. Some common survey tools include online questionnaires, Google Analytics, event surveys on social media platforms, and market research reports.

When conducting online surveys, it is important to design smartly worded questions and carefully select survey channels to reduce bias.

Listening to Customers on Social Media

You can create accounts on relevant forums, groups, or social media platforms targeting your market segment. Here, you can observe what customers are most concerned about.

Customer Needs on Social Media

The easiest way to gather customer information is through your own website and social media platforms. Your website can provide valuable information such as page views, visit frequency, and customer interaction. Social media platforms allow you to understand customer needs and engagement through actions like likes and comments. Consider thoroughly researching these customer responses.

However, this method requires effort and deep online customer research skills. Be cautious while filtering information, as there may be market disruptors creating chaos.

Direct Customer Interviews

This is an especially important method if you want to avoid wasting your advertising efforts. You need to approach regular users of your products or services, those who enthusiastically interact with your products, messages, and even your competitors. Potential customers can be found at points of sale when they are purchasing products. Invite them to interviews and surveys to understand what motivates their purchasing decisions.

This method usually allows for a small sample size, random questions, and the need for analysis to understand customer needs through their responses.

Step 3: Process the Collected Information

Sort the collected data into different categories such as psychology, behavior, demographics, and customer interests. This step will help you organize your findings effectively.

Processing Customer Persona Information

Typically, each product requires 2 to 4 ideal customer personas. Criteria that can help you classify them easily include:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Income
  • Specific issues they face
  • Preferred channels for information
  • Factors that influence their purchasing decisions

Step 4: Create Identity and Appearance

Imagine your ideal customer has an unmet need, and they have a distinct identity. You can give this person a short name consisting of 1-2 words, and specify their gender. You can even choose a face that matches the image you have in mind for your customer.

Step 5: Add Further Details to the Potential Customer Persona

After categorizing customer groups based on their basic characteristics, start customizing the ideal customer persona with details such as lifestyle, demographic characteristics, hobbies, and their interest in the products/services you are promoting. If you have more than one ideal customer persona, make sure to categorize them clearly to avoid overlapping characteristics.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

One common mistake that many businesses make is assuming that their target customers are anyone with a lot of money.

This is a mistake because focusing solely on customers with high incomes, without considering their actual product/service needs, leads to wasteful spending and effort. You will spend a lot of money on ads, but the return on investment (ROI) will not be high.

A customer persona is a hypothetical model that helps businesses shape the ideal target customer profile. Identifying customer personas is a prerequisite for businesses to develop marketing strategies and sell products in the future. We hope that the information provided by is helpful to you.

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