Giới thiệu tổng quan về tỉnh Nghệ An

Introduction: A Brief Overview

Nghệ An, located in the heart of the North Central region of Vietnam, is a province with a rich history and deep-rooted revolutionary traditions. It is renowned for producing numerous heroes, great generals, and historical figures who have contributed immensely to the nation. Notably, Nghệ An is the birthplace of President Hồ Chí Minh, the great leader of the Vietnamese people, a national liberation hero, and a world-renowned cultural figure.

The name Nghệ An first appeared in 1030 under the reign of King Lý Thái Tông when he changed the name of Hoan Châu to Nghệ An. Since then, the name Nghệ An has become familiar and endearing, deeply embedded in the glorious history of the nation and firmly ingrained in the consciousness of the Nghệ An people to this day. In November 2020, Nghệ An ceremoniously celebrated the 990th anniversary of the name Nghệ An, marking a significant milestone and a proud historical journey for the province.

Geographical Location and Natural Features

1. Geographical Location

Nghệ An is situated between latitudes 18°033′ and 20°001′ North, and longitudes 103°052′ and 105°048′ East. It is located in the central part of the North Central region of Vietnam, bordering the sea to the East, Hà Tĩnh province to the South, Thanh Hóa province to the North, and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic to the West, with a 468 km land border and an 82 km coastline.

Nghệ An consists of 21 administrative units, including 1 city, 3 towns, and 17 districts. Among them, Vinh City is a first-class urban area and the economic and cultural center of the province and the North Central region. The 3 towns are Cửa Lò, Hoàng Mai, and Thái Hoà, while the 17 districts are Diễn Châu, Quỳnh Lưu, Yên Thành, Đô Lương, Nghi Lộc, Hưng Nguyên, Nam Đàn, Thanh Chương, Tân Kỳ, Anh Sơn, Con Cuông, Nghĩa Đàn, Quỳ Hợp, Quỳ Châu, Quế Phong, Tương Dương, and Kỳ Sơn.

Nghệ An is strategically located in the East-West economic corridor connecting Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam via National Highway 7 to Cửa Lò port. It is also on national and international tourist routes, including the trans-Vietnam tourist route and the Vinh-Luang Prabang-Vientiane-Bangkok route, both accessible via National Highway 7 and Route 8. With such a favorable location, Nghệ An plays an important role in economic and commercial exchanges, tourism, and transportation of goods within the country and other countries in the region, especially Laos, Thailand, and China. This advantageous position makes it an ideal destination for investment and socio-economic development.

2. Population

According to the Statistical Yearbook of 2020, the population of Nghệ An province was approximately 3,365,198 people, with the majority residing in rural areas (84.5%). The population density is 204 people per square kilometer.

The ethnic minority and mountainous areas of Nghệ An have a population of over 1.2 million people, accounting for 36% of the total population of the province. The ethnic minority population is 491,267 people, representing 14.76% of the total population and 40.93% of the population in the mountainous areas.

Nghệ An is home to 47 ethnic groups, with the largest ethnic minorities being the Thái (338,559 people), Thổ (71,420 people), Khơ Mú (43,139 people), and Mông (33,957 people).

3. Topography

Nghệ An province is located in the northeastern part of the Trường Sơn range, characterized by diverse and complex topography, strongly dissected by hills, mountains, rivers, and streams.

Overall, the topography of Nghệ An tilts in the Northwest-Southeast direction, with three distinct ecological regions: mountainous, midland, and coastal plains. The mountainous region accounts for 83% of the province’s total area. The terrain is steep, with slopes greater than 8° covering nearly 80% of the natural area, particularly with over 38% of the land having slopes greater than 25°. The highest point is Puxailaileng Peak (2,711m) in Kỳ Sơn district, while the lowest point is in the flatlands of Quỳnh Lưu, Diễn Châu, and Yên Thành districts, with some areas as low as 0.2m above sea level (Quỳnh Thanh commune, Quỳnh Lưu district).

4. Climate

Nghệ An experiences a tropical monsoon climate with two distinct seasons: a hot and dry season in the summer and a cold and humid season in the winter. From April to August each year, Nghệ An is influenced by hot and dry southwestern winds. In the winter, it is affected by cold and humid northeastern winds.

The average annual temperature ranges from 23 to 24°C. There is a significant temperature difference between the months throughout the year. The hottest months (June and July) have an average temperature of 33°C, with a record high of 42.7°C. The coldest months (December to February) have an average temperature of 19°C, with a record low of -0.5°C. The average annual sunshine hours range from 1,500 to 1,700 hours. The average annual rainfall varies from 1,200 to 2,000 mm.

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