GMP là gì, khái niệm và tiêu chuẩn GMP, CGMP, GMP EU, GMP WHO

Understanding GMP, GMP-EU, GMP-WHO: Expert Insights on Standards for Pharmaceutical and Functional Food Production


GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) is a set of guidelines that ensures the proper manufacturing and processing of food and pharmaceutical products. It aims to control the factors that influence product quality, from the design and construction of facilities to the processing and packaging processes. In this article, we will delve into the definitions and principles of GMP, GMP-EU, and GMP-WHO, and their significance in the production of medicines and functional food.

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1. Understanding GMP and GMP Standards

1.1 What is GMP?

GMP, short for Good Manufacturing Practices, is a set of guidelines for the proper manufacturing and processing of food and pharmaceutical products. It encompasses every aspect of the production process, from facility design and equipment to processing, packaging, and quality control. GMP ensures that products meet the highest quality standards.

GMP la gi
Image: GMP la gi

1.2 Understanding GMP Standards

GMP standards are a system of guidelines and practices that ensure the manufacturing of high-quality products. GMP covers all aspects of the production and quality control process, including design, facility construction, equipment, raw materials, packaging, processing, and employee training and hygiene. Adhering to GMP standards is crucial for pharmaceutical companies to ensure the technical and management conditions necessary for producing safe and high-quality products.

GMP standards are also essential for meeting the requirements of ISO 22000, the international standard for food safety management systems.

2. Understanding EU GMP and its Standards

2.1 What is EU GMP?

EU GMP refers to European Union Good Manufacturing Practice. It is a certification granted by the regulatory authorities of EU member countries, specifically the European Medicines Agency (EMA). This certification signifies that a pharmaceutical manufacturing facility meets the EU GMP standards.

GMP is an integral part of a quality management system that ensures the control of facility conditions, personnel, and production processes to achieve the highest standards of safety and hygiene for consumers.

3. Understanding GMP WHO and its Standards

3.1 What is GMP WHO?

GMP WHO refers to Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines established and published by the World Health Organization (WHO). These guidelines aim to ensure the stable production and controlled quality of medicines, food supplements, cosmetics, and veterinary drugs. GMP WHO covers both the production and quality testing of medicines.

Various organizations have issued GMP guidelines, including GMP ASEAN, GMP EU, and GMP WHO. GMP WHO, developed and published by the World Health Organization in 1968, is widely implemented by Vietnamese manufacturing facilities. After establishing GMP, companies can apply for a GMP certification, which increases their credibility and enhances their production efficiency while minimizing risks.

Tiêu chuẩn GMP - WHO
Image: Tiêu chuẩn GMP – WHO

3.2 GMP WHO Documentation

GMP guidelines aim to ensure the stable and controlled production of medicines, health supplements, cosmetics, and veterinary drugs, while minimizing uncontrolled risks such as cross-contamination and mix-ups. GMP WHO covers all aspects of production and quality control, including personnel, equipment, hygiene, raw materials, packaging, testing, and handling of non-compliant products.

Implementing GMP standards is vital for the pharmaceutical industry to ensure product quality, safety, and consumer trust.

4. Understanding cGMP and CGMP Standards

4.1 What is cGMP?

cGMP stands for current Good Manufacturing Practice. It emphasizes that companies should use suitable equipment, technology, production processes, and scientific information based on current standards. cGMP guidelines prompt businesses to ensure that their practices align with the applicable standards at the time.

4.2 Understanding CGMP Standards

CGMP stands for Cosmetic Good Manufacturing Practice, which is a subset of GMP focusing on the production of cosmetics. The purpose of CGMP is to provide guidelines and quality evaluation standards for the production process, techniques, and management factors that impact the quality of cosmetic products. CGMP ensures that products meet high-quality and safety standards.

In the current market, where there is an abundance of cosmetics with unknown origins and constituents, CGMP facilitates the production of safe and high-quality products. CGMP standards cover various areas, including factory and facility design, personnel, machinery and equipment, production and quality control procedures, supplier assessment, and hygiene.

GMP - Thực phẩm chức năng
Image: GMP – Thực phẩm chức năng

5. Importance of GMP in Functional Food Production

Implementing GMP standards in functional food production is vital for several reasons:

  • Preventing food contamination during the production and processing stages, ensuring the production of safe products for consumers.

  • Aligning with international food safety management trends.

  • Meeting market requirements and demands.

  • Ensuring the production of high-quality functional food products.

  • Acting as a tool for:

    • Screening and eliminating facilities that do not meet the necessary conditions.
    • Reducing counterfeit, smuggled, and low-quality products.
    • Developing the functional food industry as a sustainable and healthy sector.
    • Building consumer trust and brand reputation.
    • Increasing consumer awareness of basic hygiene and confidence in Vietnamese products.
    • Improving quality of life.
    • Empowering the government to guarantee pricing, enhance competitiveness, reduce costs, improve production processes and environments, and strengthen food safety and business opportunities.

GMP standards control all factors related to food safety and quality.

Tiêu chuẩn GMP trong sản xuất thuốc
Image: Tiêu chuẩn GMP trong sản xuất thuốc


In this article, we have provided an in-depth understanding of GMP, GMP-EU, GMP-WHO, and CGMP. Adhering to these standards is essential for pharmaceutical and food production companies to ensure the safety, quality, and trustworthiness of their products.

For more information about GMP, GMP standards, and related topics, please visit

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